Bibliographic information and links to open access publications produced by the InGRID project are published on this page.
The information will be added here as soon as a publication is available.
- Project reports (including event proceedings)
- Project articles
- Project working papers
- Project presentations on conferences and conference papers
Joint research activities are organised with the aim to integrate, harmonise and optimise existing tools and methods within the different research domains and to create new tools to fill existing data gaps. Newsflashes, Newsletters, working papers, publications and results of these joint research activities will be published here.
Regular Newsflashes on the project will update you on the progress of the project.
- Newsflash 1 - May 2013
- Newsflash 2 - July 2013
- Newsflash 3 - September 2013
- Newsflash 4 - November 2013
- Newsflash 5 - December 2013
- Newsflash 6 - February 2014
- Newsflash 7 - May 2014
- Newsflash 8 - June 2014
- Newsflash 9 - July 2014
- Newsflash 10 - August 2014
- Newsflash 11 - October 2014
- Newsflash 12 - January 2015
- Newsflash 13 - March 2015
- Newsflash 14 - May 2015
- Newsflash 15 - June 2015
- Newsflash 16 - July 2015
- Newsflash 17 - August 2015
- Newsflash 18 - November 2015
- Newsflash 19 - December 2015
- Newsflash 20 - January 2016
- Newsflash 21 - February 2016
- Newsflash 22 - April 2016
- Newsflash 23 - June 2016
- Newsflash 24 - July 2016
- Newsflash 25 - October 2016
- Newsflash 26 - November 2016
Eight InGRID Newsletters will present key findings from the project.
The project leaflet contains a presentation of the project, its consortium and its activities.
- Project leaflet
- Newsletter 1 - November 2013
- Newsletter 2 - February 2014
- Newsletter 3 - July 2014
- Newsletter 4 - February 2015
- Newsletter 5 - July 2015
- Newsletter 6 - February 2016
- Newsletter 7 - July 2016
- Newsletter 8 - to be expected in January 2017
Project reports (including event proceedings)
Work package 2: Research infrastructure strategic forum
- Szekér L. & Van Gyes G. (2015), Deliverable 2.1: Futuring briefing note 1 - The future policy research agenda of an EU inclusive growth research infrastructure, Leuven, FP7 InGRID project.
Abstract:The central question of this report is: “What are challenges that the European research community on inclusive growth needs to address to develop a European research infrastructure which will foster evidence-based policy making?” Aiming to get a broad view on this issue, a purposive, non-probability sample of European experts within different academic fields related to issues of inclusive growth was surveyed. The mainly qualitative analysis of the survey responses let to the identification of four main challenges (data, methods, the gap between policy and research and the research context) and four main recommendations linked to this: (1) Data should be the main priority: more and better data are necessary for high-quality comparative research in Europe. (2) The improvement of methods and researchers’ (methodological) skills must go hand in hand with more and better data. (3) Bridging the gap between policy and research is a challenge to be tackled both by policy makers and researchers. (4) A research context that encourages cooperation and innovation and provides the necessary resources should be stimulated.
Progressing towards a European research infrastructure on inclusive growth starts with a strong focus on the data, but goes hand in hand with the development and improvement of methods, training and knowledge exchange on these data and methods and community building which includes not only the European researchers from different disciplines, but other relevant stakeholders as well and in addition to that investing (efforts and money) in building bridges and a collaborative climate between policy makers and researchers.
Lenau S., Liégeois P., Marlier E., Münnich R. & Van Gyes G. (2016), Deliverable 2.2: Futuring briefing note 2 - Statistical research agenda for an EU inclusive growth research infrastructure: some key issues, Leuven, FP7 InGRID project.
Abstract: The aim of this Futuring briefing note is to highlight and discuss the most relevant information from the InGRID-futuring survey (cf. Szekér and Van Gyes, 2015) with regards to current developments in official statistics. The note focuses in particular on the issues of new data and non-probability sampling; micro-simulation and cross-border statistics as future arenas of innovation.
Work package 20: Innovative tools and protocols for poverty & living conditions
- Esteve A., Permanyer I., Tzavidis N., Köksel P., & Liu C. (2017), Deliverable 20.3: High precision poverty maps, Leuven, FP7 InGRID project.
Abstract: Estimating economic indicators is crucial for achieving a targeted implementation of welfare policies. However, for such policies to be effective, policy makers must have access to a detailed picture of deprivation that goes beyond aggregate estimates at the country (national) level, extending to finer geographical levels and to other domains of interest, such as specific groups of individuals. In this context, we have estimated the regional distribution of poverty and inequality across several European countries using the most recently available data from European censuses and the EU-SILC household surveys. The main goal of this exercise has been to generate poverty maps (via the so-called ‘Empirical Best Prediction’ (EBP) approach) with the highest geographical precision that the available data permitted, in as many countries as possible.
- Gábos A. & Kopasz M. (2014), Deliverable 20.1: Concept paper - For an integrated poverty and living conditions indicator system (IPOLIS) database, Leuven, FP7 InGRID project.
Abstract: The paper aims at providing a general conceptual framework, as well as to set up a structure for the Integrated Poverty and Living Conditions Indicator System (IPOLIS). IPOLIS will be the core outcome of the InGRID project and will cover three easy-to-reach vulnerable groups: children, youth and older people. The IPOLIS is aimed to improve infrastructure for analysing and monitoring the situation of these vulnerable groups. It is conceived to serves as a resource for various user groups (researchers, policy makers at different levels, NGO experts, journalists, students, etc.) to (i) monitor the situation of children, youth and elderly in the field of poverty, living conditions and quality of life; (ii) observe relationships between indicators and to detect cross-country patterns according to selected measures. The theoretical framework of the IPOLIS is based on the concept of quality of life, considered to be a multi-dimensional concept comprising objective measures, and people’s perceptions of these factors (economic, social, etc.), that is, subjective measures of objective substances. In terms of indicator selection, IPOLIS will include objective measures as well as subjective indicators of objective circumstances.
The structure of IPOLIS consist of six domains (or dimensions) of quality of life, including material living conditions, labour market attachment and work-life balance, education and training, health and risk behaviours, social connectedness and participation, physical environment and safety. Beyond these six domains, policy and context indicators have been added to the indicator set. This structure has been defined after a detailed overview of existing practices for the whole population, for children, for youth and for elderly.
The concept paper of IPOLIS also defines general and age-group specific indicator selection criteria, discusses dilemmas of the indicator selection process, and defines overviews the available data infrastructure. IPOILIS is expected to be launched during the first half of year 2016.
Work package 21: Innovative tools and protocols for working conditions & vulnerability research
- Beblavý B., Akgüç M., Fabo B., Lenaerts K., & Paquier F. (2017), Deliverable 21.2: Determinants of WC&OSH conditions connected with economic change, Leuven, FP7 InGRID project.
Abstract: In recent years, there have been widespread debates on the ‘future of work’ in Europe, as megatrends, such as technological change, globalisation and ageing of the population, have transformed countless jobs - which in turn calls for new skills. At the same time, many European countries are still recovering from the Great Recession. With the recent upsurge of unemployment still in mind, European citizens have raised concerns about what will happen to their job. It is against this background that this report explores the dynamics of new or emerging occupations, jobs, tasks and skills, and their identification in particular. To this end, the report starts with an extensive review of the literature, in order to reveal how these concepts are defined and measured. It then continues with an assessment of the strengths and limitations of the most commonly used methodologies and data sets and presents alternatives to both. Our focus is on the potential of web data from different sources, ranging from social media, over surveys, to online job boards and vacancies. The final chapters of the report present the results from a series of pilots that we carried out, each based on web data, with the objective to further our understanding of new occupations and skills. The report is concluded with a chapter that highlights one of these pilots; it examines skill mismatches by linking educational requirements from online vacancies to educational attainments of jobholders. We conclude that web data have much potential in this research area and can be highly valuable to provide policymakers with real-time information on ongoing trends.
Work package 22: Innovative solutions for comparative policy indicators and analysis
Tijdens K.G. (2017). Deliverable 22.5: Institutional arrangements regarding minimum wage setting in 195 countries, Leuven, FP7 InGRID project.
Abstract: Most countries in the world have country-level policies concerning their minimum wage-fixing machinery. These policies vary widely, and therefore it becomes important to have adequate classifications of these policies. This paper reviews databases that classify country-level policies for determining minimum wages. Several databases - we found twelve - classify countries according to their minimum wage-fixing mechanisms and the coverage of these mechanisms. The mechanisms indicate whether the minimum wages are set by Law, by Collective Bargaining or any policy in between, the coverage indicates whether the minimum wages cover the entire dependent labour force or only one or more sections within the labour force.
The aim of this paper is to generate a Minimum Wage Policies Database (MWPDB) from the merged dataset. Using a set of rules for generating data from the source databases, we indicate for almost half of the 195 countries the presence or absence of a statutory minimum wage for all five years from 2011 to 2015. For 16 countries no valid data is available for any year. Particularly for Europe and South America, MWPDB has satisfactory number of observations, whereas the opposite holds for the small islands in Oceania. The MWPDB results show that approximately nine in ten countries do apply a minimum wage policy, and that this is slightly increasing between 2011 to 2015.
Hufkens T, & Verbist G. (2017), Deliverable 22.4: Adding child care policies in EUROMOD, Leuven, FP7 InGRID project.
Abstract: In this report we document the expansion of EUROMOD with child care policies in a selection of EU countries. Child care policies have become increasingly important over the past years, especially to help families reconciling work life with their responsibilities of raising children. The rising participation of women in the labour market urged welfare states to develop and expand child care policies. Concrete child care targets for European countries were set at the Barcelona Summit of 2002. Several countries reformed or expanded their child care policies in the last decade. There are, however, still substantial differences across EU countries in terms of type and coverage of child care policies. To enhance research possibilities with respect to the distributional impact and work incentives of child care provisions, we expand EUROMOD with child care policies.
We have extended EUROMOD by calculating the parental fees for formal child care and other possibly related measures such as the tax treatment of these fees. In this note we describe for each country the child care policies in a selection of European welfare states and discuss the assumptions needed for implementation in EUROMOD. The selected countries are Germany, Finland, Lithuania, Netherlands, Portugal and Sweden.
Doctrinal L., Nelson K. & Sirén S. (2015), Deliverable 22.3: Comprehensive indicators for the analysis of out-of-work benefits. Introducing the out-of-work benefits dataset, Leuven, FP7 InGRID project.
Abstract: In this InGRID deliverable we develop a new approach to the measurement of income replacement in out-of-work benefits. We present the Out-of-Work Benefits (OUTWB) dataset, which is part of the SPIN database at the Swedish institute for Social Research (SOFI), Stockholm University. The OUTWB dataset includes new synthesised measures on overall net replacement rates and progressiveness of income replacement in out-of-work benefits. Our synthesised measures of income replacement are based on data from the OECD Benefits and Wages project.
Hufkens T., Leventi C., Rastrigina O., Manios K., Van Mechelen N., Verbist G., Sutherland H. & Goedemé T. (2016), Deliverable 22.2: HHoT: a new flexible Hypothetical Household Tool for tax-benefit simulations in EUROMOD, Leuven, FP7 InGRID project.
Abstract: In this paper we present a new state-of-the-art tool for tax-benefit hypothetical household simulations in EUROMOD. The Hypothetical Household Tool (HHoT), allows the user to specify in a user-friendly, and very flexible environment the relevant parameters to examine tax liabilities and benefit entitlements for a wide range of hypothetical household types. Subsequently, the European microsimulation model EUROMOD calculates tax liabilities and benefit entitlements. Results can be easily used to illustrate and better understand how tax-benefit systems work and how social and fiscal policies interact. Furthermore, results can also be used for constructing (comparative) policy indicators, for instance with regard to benefit adequacy, financial work incentives, and implicit equivalence scales. An important strength of this tool is that it allows for microsimulations and hypothetical household simulations within a single, validated and comparative framework (EUROMOD). In this paper, we first explain the main characteristics of HHoT and how it works in practice. Subsequently, we present the first results of a validation study, in which we compare the results of HHoT with those of the OECD Tax-Benefit calculator and the CSB Minimum Income Protection Indicator dataset (CSB-MIPI). This comparison shows that at the level of disposable household incomes outcomes generally converge, but that for individual policies more divergence exists. We provide some first indications of where differences are largest, and explain why direct comparisons of the three sources of information are not straightforward.
Doctrinal L., Fredriksson D., Nelson K. & Sirén S. (2017), Deliverable 22.1: Inventory on core social policy databases and indicators for comparative research, Leuven, FP7 InGRID project.
Abstract: This InGRID deliverable is part of Work Package 22 on ‘Innovative solutions for comparative policy indicators and analysis'. The purpose is to provide an inventory of core social policy databases and indicators for comparative research. We map 26 databases and infrastructures that fruitfully can be used in comparative research to analyse the causes and consequences of social policy. Each database is compared according to a set of characteristics, including type of data (expenditures, institutional indicators, beneficiary statistics, socio-economic/income surveys, microsimulation), policy areas included (cash benefits: family benefits, unemployment benefits, sickness benefits, pensions, work-accidents, social assistance, and disability/invalidity/survivors benefits; public services: child care, health care, elder care, and active labour market policy), countries and years covered, as well as interval for updating of data. Nearly all databases specialise on distinct parts of social policy, and data on cash benefits are somewhat more frequent than data on public services, particularly when institutional indicators are in focus. Compared with data on social expenditures and beneficiaries, institutional indicators are based on social policy legislation and thus independent of changes in social needs and population characteristics.
Work package 23: High-performance statistical quality management
Articus C., Berger Y.G., Betti G., Burgard J.P., Byrne A., Chandola T., D'Agostino A., Gagliardi F., Giusti C., Goldstein H., Lenau S., Marchetti S., Münnich R., Potsi A., Pratesi M., Shlomo N. & Verma V. (2017), Deliverable 23.2: Future needs in statistics, Leuven, FP7 InGRID project.
Abstract: The InGRID workpackage 23 on high-performance statistical quality management focuses on important developments and future needs of statistical indicators in the social sciences. That requires the construction of a shared knowledge on theories and best practices to evaluate the quality and appropriateness of indicators through an empirical analysis. This covers methodological advances as well as practical considerations of indicators for poverty, social exclusion, and related fields. Additionally to methodological advances, a simulation lab is developed to foster open and reproducible research for future developments in the InGRID research area using SILC related data. This second deliverable covers especially future needs in three areas:
- missing values, non-probability samples, and big data;
- multi-dimensional indicators;
- regional indicators and advances in small area applications.
The major aim of this deliverable aims to identify research gaps in these areas and, hence, to indicate ways for future research in the InGRID research area.
Berger Y.G., Burgard J.P., Byrne A., Cernat A., Giusti C., Koksel P., Lenau S., Marchetti S., Merkle H., Münnich R., Permanyer I., Pratesi M., Salvati N., Shlomo N., Smith D. & Tzavidis N. (2016), Deliverable 23.1: Case studies, Leuven, FP7 InGRID project.
Abstract: The InGRID work package 23 on high-performance statistical quality management focuses on improvements in the development and accuracy of indicators. That requires the construction of a shared knowledge on theories and best practices to judge the quality and appropriateness of indicators through an empirical analysis. This covers methodological advances as well as practical considerations of indicators for poverty, social exclusion, and related fields. Additionally to methodological advances, a simulation lab is developed to foster open and reproducible research for future developments in the InGRID research area using SILC related data.
This first deliverable covers methods in several areas:
- multidimensional indicators
- non-response and imputation
- small area estimation, and
- measuring level and change
As an additional asset, the AMELIA dataset, which was originally started within the FP7 project AMELI (http://ameli.surveystatistics.net), was further developed to provide a sound basis for comparable and reproducible research. The start of AMELIA was related to SILC data. Further developments will integrate time change and will allow to enhance the data with other sources of interest for the InGRID research.
Work package 20: Innovative tools and protocols for poverty & living conditions
- Bernát N. & Messing V. (2016), Methodological and data infrastructure report on Roma population in the EU, Working paper, Leuven, InGRID project, M20.3.
Abstract: This paper aims to contribute to the policy discussion on the challenges of mapping the realities of Roma living conditions, and attempts to propose cross-country comparative, relevant indicators of Roma inclusion, which are acutely needed for evidence-based policy making. The reason for the special attention devoted to the situation of the Roma population is clear: a large group of EU citizens, 10-12 million people is living in much worse conditions, and with fewer opportunities for upward mobility, than their peers or neighbours. If these people remain excluded, uneducated, jobless and mired in deep poverty, it not only blights their own lives and determinates the possibilities of the next generations, but also has a significant impact on life for the majority, through burdens imposed on the welfare system and the reduced capacity of the local labour markets. Social indicators based on statistical and survey data are essential to provide clear and comprehensive evidence for policy makers. At present, evidence-based policy making aimed at Roma inclusion faces serious limitations, because basic information is lacking about Roma people’s social and economic situation. The paper addresses issues related to measuring Roma inclusion and the outcomes of EU wide and national policies aiming at this population. In this effort the paper first outlines the political and conceptual framework and describes availability and limitations of data on Roma populations. In a next section it comparatively overviews indicators of Roma inclusion applied by National Roma Inclusion Strategies in 16 EU Member States and critically assesses them. Finally, it proposes alternative indicators that reflect challenges of Roma inclusion in a comprehensive, multidimensional way and discusses the possible data sources as well as gaps in available data.
- Gábos A. & Kopasz M. (2015), Methodological and data infrastructure report on children, Working paper, Leuven, InGRID project, M20.6.
Abstract: The present methodological and data infrastructure report aims at providing a full proposal for the Child module of the Integrated Poverty and Living Conditions Indicator System (IPOLIS). This is done by following the general framework set up by the IPOLIS Concept Paper.
The paper (i) provides a full indicator proposal for the children portfolio of IPOLIS; (ii) prepares an indicator fiche for each and every proposed indicator; and (iii) makes ready the set-up of the Child module of the IPOLIS database for all countries and all years specified by the IPOLIS Concept Paper (including main indicators as well as breakdowns and confidence intervals where relevant).
At the start, the paper first presents the structure of IPOLIS based on the IPOLIS Concept Paper. Following this, the discussion is narrowed down to children’s quality of life. First, the policy context of monitoring children’s quality of life is outlined. Then the paper takes an inventory of the data infrastructure that can be used to provide input for the Child module of IPOLIS. The core chapter of the paper is devoted to the selection of indicators measuring the six domains of children’s quality of life: (i) material living conditions, (ii) labour market attachment of parents, (iii) education, (iv) health and risk behaviours, (v) social connectedness and participation, and (vi) physical environment and safety. In order to select the most appropriate indicators for each domain and component of IPOLIS, all the potential relevant indicators that meet the criteria of indicator selection laid down in IPOLIS Concept Paper are reviewed. Finally, the paper provides recommendations for the improvement of measurement and data infrastructure.
- Schäfer A., Zentarra A. & Groh-Samberg O. (2015), Methodological and data infrastructure report on youth, Working paper, Leuven, InGRID project, M20.7.
Abstract: The methodological and data infrastructure report aims at providing a full indicator proposal for the youth module of the Integrated Poverty and Living Conditions Indicator System (IPOLIS). The report provides not only an indicator proposal for the youth portfolio of IPOLIS but also prepares an indicator fiche for each and every proposed indicator. For this, first an outline of the policy context of monitoring youth’s quality of life is given. Second, in order to select the most appropriate indicators for each (sub)component, relevant existing (inter)national infrastructures, data sources and indicators are reviewed. After this core definitions, selection rules and the selection of indicators are discussed and a structure of the youth module is proposed. Finally, dilemmas and problems of the data are discussed and recommendations for the improvement of measurement and data infrastructures on youth are given.
- Kopasz M. (2015), Methodological and data infrastructure report for the elderly, Working paper, Leuven, InGRID project, M20.8.
Abstract: The paper (i) provides a full indicator proposal for the Elderly portfolio of IPOLIS; (ii) prepares an indicator fiche for each and every proposed indicator; and (iii) makes ready the set-up of the Elderly module of the IPOLIS database for all countries and all years specified by the IPOLIS Concept Paper including main indicators as well as breakdowns where relevant). At the start, the paper briefly presents the structure of IPOLIS as outlined in the Concept Paper and discusses the problems of defining ‘old age’. The policy context of monitoring elderly people’s quality of life and the prior indicator system initiatives are outlined as a next step, followed by an inventory of the data infrastructure that can be used to provide input for the Elderly Module of IPOLIS. The core part of the paper is devoted to the selection of indicators measuring the different aspects of older adults’ quality of life. In order to select the most appropriate indicators for each domain and component of IPOLIS, the report reviews the potential relevant indicators that meet the criteria of indicator selection laid down in the Context Paper. Finally, provides recommendations for the improvement of measurement and data infrastructure are provided.
Work package 21: Innovative tools and protocols for working conditions & vulnerability research
- Tijdens K. (2014), Reviewing the measurement and comparison of occupations across Europe. Working paper, Leuven, InGRID project, M21.2.
Abstract: This paper is a deliverable of Workpackage 21 ‘Innovative tools and protocols for working conditions & vulnerability research.’ Section 2 provides a review of the measurement of occupations in surveys in Europe. Section 3 specifies how occupations are measured in web surveys. Section 4 outlines the methodology currently used to test the comparability of the job content and skill requirements in occupational titles. Section 5 details the results of the validation efforts, including the design of a project to measure occupations on a global scale. Occupation is a key variable in socio-economic research, used in a wide variety of studies. Where such studies use quantitative approaches, they usually rely on survey data. In this paper an inventory of 33 surveys is analysed with respect to the phrasing of the question. The vast majority uses an open text format for the occupation question, but the phrasing of the question is different across almost all surveys. In an additional question, half of the surveys ask for a job description, and again the phrasing varies largely across the surveys. Coding of the open format question is usually (semi-) automatic, survey agencies applying dictionary approaches for automatic occupational coding. In web surveys closed survey questions can be asked using text string matching and search trees for navigating. Recently, machine learning algorithms appear to be a promising development, requiring a substantial amount of manually coded occupations to be used as training data for the automatic classifi cation. a huge training set is required for an auto-coder to apply machine learning algorithms. This paper details a design to develop such a training set in a multi-country approach.
- Tijdens K. & de Visintin S. (2016), What do workers do? Measuring the intensity and market value of tasks in jobs, Working paper, Leuven, InGRID project, M21.3.
Abstract: Do occupational titles refer to the same work activities, as assumed in occupational classifications? Up to now, no large-scale empirical testing of this assumption has been conducted. Using the task descriptions provided for all ISCO 4-digit occupations, the frequency of task implementation was tested using respondents in the multi-country, multilingual WageIndicator web survey on work and wages in 13 countries. The web survey targets individuals in the labour force. Depending on their self-selected occupation, the relevant task list was shown and respondents were asked to tick on a 5point scale how often they performed each task. For 427 occupations (ISCO-08 4-digits) in total 3,237 occupation-specific tasks were available. Between November 2013 and August 2015 33,678 respondents had completed the tasks questions for their respective occupations. The results show that task measurement is feasible because it can generate sufficient observations to allow for analysis for a range of detailed, 4-digit occupations. Moreover, given that the WageIndicator web survey also holds data on wages, the median and average hourly wages (in EUR) could be computed for each task separately, showing that the average wages of tasks performed on a daily or weekly basis ranged between EUR 5 and 34. The data collection challenges future empirical testing of hypotheses concerning the variation in task frequencies and their related wage premiums within and across countries, across occupations’ skill levels, across firm sizes, across regions and alike.
- Tijdens K. (2015), The design of a tool for the measurement of occupations in websurveys using a global index of occupations, Working paper, Leuven, InGRID project, M21.4.
Abstract: Occupation is a key variable in socio-economic research, used in a wide variety of studies, but the measurement of occupations is a major challenge. In case of open-ended survey questions, websurveys pose extra challenges, as respondents are more likely to key in odd text compared to other survey modes, particularly those with an interviewer. Websurveys however offer new opportunities for closed survey questions with self-identification of occupations, particularly when using semantic matching and a database with large numbers of coded occupational titles. This paper details the design requirements for such a database to facilitate surveys in multiple countries.
First, this paper describes how the WISCO Database of Occupations has developed since its first use in 2000, when the database was applied in the WageIndicator websurvey on work and wages. By the end of 2015 the websurvey and the database had expanded to 85 countries. In these fifteen years, the number of occupations in the database had increased from 55 to 1,896 and the languages covered from 1 to 43.
The paper then presents an overview of the ISCO occupational classification with four hierarchical levels and their coding. It also reviews how occupations can be measured in websurveys in open-ended or closed survey questions. For the closed question three approaches are detailed, notably scrolling, search trees and semantic matching. Given that any national labour market easily cover 10,000 or more occupational titles, the semantic matching is considered the best approach provided that the look-up tables include 5,000 or more occupational titles for each country.
Finally, the paper details the design principles in the database used for semantic matching. It discusses the size of the source list in relation to the ISCO coding. It details the issue of male and female titles and the use of start or end years for occupations It specifies how the database copes with highly aggregated occupational titles such as clerk or manager, with abbreviations and organisation specific job titles, with synonyms, with skill levels within and across occupations, with occupations in the corporate hierarchy, with composite jobs, with handicraft workers, and with subsistence farmers and hunters. Next, it details how to cope with respondents indicating that their job title is not in the database.
The paper ends with a future outlook for a programme to test the validity and reliability of occupational measurement.
Beblavý M., Akgüc M., Fabo B. & Lenaerts K. (2016), What are the new occupations and the new skills? And how are they measured? State of the art report, Working paper, Leuven, InGRID project, M21.6a.
Abstract: This State of the Art Report aims to provide an overview of the academic and the policy debate on the emergence of new occupations and skills in the 21th century. Although the discussion on new jobs and skills is not new to the literature or the public debate, the issue still receives a lot of attention because of the socio-ecological transition that many countries in Europe are facing and the labour market implications that it brings along. Due to technological progress, globalisation and demographic and climate changes, new occupations are arising while other occupations disappear. At the same time, new jobs require new skills or combinations thereof, which need to be developed through formal education, on-the-job training or in another way. In order to better understand the labour market implications of such a transition, the report first thoroughly explores the concepts of occupations and skills and then continues with an analysis of the academic and policy view on these concepts. Commonly, the concepts of occupations, jobs, tasks and skills are studied simultaneously. From both the academic and policy work, it is clear that new occupations and skills are not entirely new phenomena, but the implications do appear to change over time. The academic and policy literature also appear to draw a lot on each other, in the sense that many concepts, definitions, methods and databases are shared. The remainder of the report is then dedicated to an analysis of the traditional methods and data sources and the introduction of innovative methodologies and new web-based datasets to analyse these phenomena. These new data and methodologies are promising and contribute to the real-time identification of new occupations and skills as they arise. In that way, the report supports work on mismatch, skill gaps, over-education, school-to-work-transitions and other factors and furthers our understanding of the dynamics of the labour market.
Beblavý M., Akgüç M. Fabo B., Lenaerts K, & Paquier F. (2017), A Methodological inquiry into the data generating process concerning new jobs and skills. Methodology, Working paper, Leuven, FP7 InGRID project, M21.6b.
Abstract: In this paper, we put to the test two innovative approaches, which are both based on web data, to examine occupations and skills. Driven by technological change, new tasks, occupations and skills have emerged whereas others have become redundant. At the same time, existing occupations have substantially transformed. These transformations have been studied from the academic and policy perspectives, often on the basis of data collected from interviews, surveys, trade publications, job advertisements and existing occupational or skill classifications. The traditional methods and data sources, however, have been criticised for several reasons. Many have suggested that they are not suitable to identify new occupations and skills because data are usually lagged. This complicates the identification of new occupations and skills, and makes it very difficult to respond to current trends in a timely manner.
Web data are an interesting tool to overcome these issues and are, therefore, at the heart of our report, which is methodological in nature. More specifically, we test two ways of identifying new occupations and skills in six case studies. The first method is based on a set of job advertisements published online. Vacancies are detailed and contain information about education, skill and other requirements. Moreover, by considering for which positions job vacancies are published, we can find new occupations. The second method relies on the meta-data and other information available on online job boards. By examining the occupational structure and tags used, one can get insights into upcoming or new occupations and skills. In this report, we show that both methodologies can be used to study occupations and skills and explain what their advantages and limitations are. By piloting easy-to-use and up-to-date methodologies to analyse new occupations and skills in real time, we aspire to provide valuable inputs for policy-makers, education institutes and other stakeholders.
Beblavý M., Akgüc M., Fabo B., Lenaerts K., & Paquier F. (2017), A methological inquiry into data generating process concerning new jobs and skills. Taxonomy. Working paper, Leuven, FP7 InGRID project, M21.6c.
Abstract: This paper presents the findings of six case studies, each of which makes use of web data, to carry out research on occupations and skills. The idea behind the case studies is to put into test a series of methodologies and assess what one can learn. four case studies are based on job advertisements, one case study is based on meta data, and one case study is based on a combination of both data sources. By analysing these data, we are able to better understand what types of occupations and skills are high in demand, how these differ across countries and sectors and related topics. More specifically, our case studies cover mismatches between the educational requirements in vacancies and educational attainments of job holders in the Czech Republic, the requirements listed in job vacancies for the 30 most-frequently-advertised occupations in the US in general and IT skills in particular, foreign language skills requirements in the Visegrad region and the demand for non-cognitive skills. One of the case studies is devoted to a pilot of a new method to detect new and emerging occupations. This paper summarises the main findings of each of these case studies. It shows that web data are a highly valuable data source for labour market research and research concerning occupations and skills in particular.
Tijdens K., Beblavý M. & ThumThysen A. (2015), Do educational requirements in vacancies match the educational attainments of job-holders? An analysis of web-based data for 279 occupations in the Czech Republic, Working paper, Leuven, InGRID project, M21.7.
Abstract: European labour market policies aim to develop an early-warning tool for mismatches by monitoring job vacancies. Few studies have been able to measure these mismatches, among others because systematic information on educational requirements in vacancies is lacking. Our study explores mismatch for occupations by investigating the relationship between demand & supply ratios and the vacancies’ educational requirements and jobholders’ attainments. It compares the distributional characteristics of requirements and attainments using data of 14,092 vacancies of the web-database of the Czech Public Employment Service with data of 10,364 jobholders from the WageIndicator web-survey, merged into a database aggregated by 4-digit level occupations (totalling to 279 occupations). The demand & supply ratio is unbalanced with one fourth of the 279 occupations in excessive demand and one third in excessive supply. A high demand correlates with lower educational requirements. At lower skill levels, requirements are more condensed, but attainments less so. At higher skill levels, requirements are less condensed, but attainments more so. For most occupations the lowest attainment is at least one level above the required level, pointing to an overeducated workforce. For all skill levels the mean educational requirements are lower when occupations are in high demand, though not all results are statistically significant.
Szekér L. & Van Gyes G. (2015), Inventory of working conditions and occupational safety and health surveys, Working paper, Leuven, InGRID project, M21.9.
Abstract: This working paper is part of Work Package 21 ‘Innovative tools and protocols for working conditions and vulnerability research’ of the InGRID project. It aims to discuss an inventory of working conditions and occupational safety and health surveys in Europe. Together with the inventories on linked employer-employee surveys and on policy data bases on working conditions and OSH that are made within the project, this inventory wants to provide researchers across Europe with an overview of existing surveys, and the quality of these surveys as a starting point for further integration and optimisation of the existing tools for working conditions research.
The inventory bundles 17 national and transnational surveys on working conditions and OSH in European countries, which focus on individuals (employees), covering 11 European countries. It provides an overview of some relevant survey characteristics and survey quality information, such as survey methodology (timing, frequency, population, design), data collection and survey questionnaire, survey sample and response, scope of the survey (objectives and topics covered), available survey documentation, data availability, and quality control procedures. Finally some general conclusions are made based on the overview and some limitations of the inventory are discussed.
- Greenan N. & Seghir M. (2015), Inventory of linked employer-employee surveys on working conditions and occupational health and safety issues, Working paper, Leuven, InGRID project, M21.10.